## Mathematical Techniques for Mitigating Alarm Fatigue

The problem with attenuating alarm data is achieving the balance between communicating the essential, patient-safety specific information that will provide proper notification to clinical staff while minimizing the excess, spurious and non-emergent events that are not indicative of a threat to patient safety. In the absence of contextual information, the option is usually to err on the side of excess because the risk of missing an emergent alarm or notification carries with it the potential for high cost (e.g.: patient harm or death).

The purpose of this study is to look at the mathematics and some of the techniques and options available for evaluating real-time data. The objective is to suggest a dialog for further research and investigation into the use of such techniques as appropriate. Clearly, patient safety, regulatory, staff fatigue and other factors must be taken into account in terms of aligning on a best approach or practice (if one can even be identified). These aspects of alarm fatigue are intentionally omitted from the discussion at this point (to be taken up at another time) so that a pure study of the physics of the parameter data and techniques for analyzing can be explored.

A copy of the full white paper, Mathematical Techniques for Mitigating Alarm Fatigue v001, is available for download.

## Arterial Blood Pressure Signal Tracking

### Filtering of Arterial Blood Pressure Signal Artifact using the Extended Kalman Filter

The figure above depicts several seconds of raw arterial blood pressure (ABP) data obtained from a patient within the MIMIC II physiologic waveform database. [1,2]

This figure shows a raw signal with a tracking signal based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) overlaid. In this case, the signal error and the process noise are very small (signal noise 0.1 mmHg, process noise 0.5 mmHg). With these settings, the filter tracks the actual signal very closely, and makes it appear as if there is not difference between signal measurement and track.

The full analysis is available at the following link in PDF form:

ABP Tracking via EKF

[1] M. Saeed, M. Villarroel, A.T. Reisner, G. Clifford, L. Lehman, G.B. Moody, T. Heldt, T.H. Kyaw, B.E. Moody, R.G. Mark.Multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC-II): A public-access ICU database. Critical Care Medicine 39(5):952-960 (2011 May); doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31820a92c6.

[2] Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Glass L, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Mark RG, Mietus JE, Moody GB, Peng C-K, Stanley HE. PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a New Research Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals.Circulation 101(23):e215-e220 [Circulation Electronic Pages; http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/101/23/e215]; 2000 (June 13).